This has been brought up many times and discussed ad nauseam at various times on every SE site. I understand why it comes up, as do the folks at SE (the commercial entity behind the QnA engine this site runs on) but the suggestion is fundamentally at odds with the way the system works.
Voting is supposed to be anonymous. Anything you do to try to turn it into a feedback mechanism necessarily takes away the anonymous nature of it, at which point it stops serving its primary function.
Votes are not primarily a feedback mechanism. In other words they are not primarily for you as a post author. If it was, you would have a point that it isn't optimized for that. But it's not. It's a signal you can use, but it's really for something else and the way it functions is for that other purpose.
The primary purpose of voting is to sort answers and signal site readers about the relative value of answers. It's a crowd-sourced sorting system amalgamating any number of factors about perceived relative usefulness, accuracy, etc. For various reason (that you should research on meta.se) for that to function properly the votes themselves need to be anonymous and are therefore strictly not correlated to other mechanisms such as commenting.
Votes are not meant primarily for you as a way to improve your answers. They are for everybody else. They further the aims of this site in that new visitors to a question find the best answer as ranked by the community at the top of the answer stack and less well received ones lower down.
There are other mechanisms: people with feedback to give are welcome to comment to give you direction. You can also solicit feedback in chat or here on meta, but remember we cannot explain specific votes. The crowd sourced way of sorting answers by perceived usefulness is specifically decoupled from other forms of feedback.
I know it's hard to believe when you're just starting out with your first couple hundred rep, but the minor rep intensives really aren't that big a deal. -2 is never going to seriously hurt you as a user. First, the voter also looses -1 to cast that vote, and they aren't going to be able to do a bunch at once. The system will catch actual abuse patterns.
My advice is to stop worrying about the votes themselves. If you're getting downvotes and you want to turn the tide, step back from the questions you are posting answers to and ask yourself (and maybe others) what you can do to make your answers more useful than the other ones being posted. Find an answer to that question—do whatever work needs to be done to produce more useful answers and voting will take care of itself.